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Phillippus Aureolus Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombast von Hohemheim) - Swiss physician; controversial figure in medicine and alchemy; promoted the production of chemical medicines for illnesses of the human body; saw the human body as a chemical system monitored by spiritual alchemists; developed many medical remedies; developed theoretical chemistry through sets of metal experiments which produced salt solutions; added salt to mercury and sulphur as components of metals.Georg Bauer - "Agricola" - German educator, city official, and physician Georgius Agricola (Latinized for of George Bauer) is best known as the author of De re metallica (1556), a treatise on mining and metallurgy.Between 14 he was in Strasbourg, probably working as a goldsmith, and here he may have begun printing.In 1438 he entered a contract with three others to develop a refined printing technique and became the inventor of moveable-type mechanical printing in Europe.Copernicus discovered the mathematically yet unproven heliocentric solar system.
While town physician of Joachimsthal (now Jachymov, Czech Republic), he became intensely interested in all aspects of the mining and metallurgy industry by which the town thrived and began a 25-year study of the subject, which culminated in hos posthumously published masterpiece.
The school, later called the Garden, accepted women and slaves. Fragments from his most important work, Peri physeos (On Nature), were recovered from the charred papyri of Herculaneum, buried by an eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79.
This, coupled with Epicurus' teachings concerning pleasure, led to public criticism of the school as a scene of debauchery. Johann Gutenberg - a craftsman from Mainz, Germany.
The Reformation, the Renaissance, and the scientific period of the 17th century can hardly be contemplated without printed books.
Nicholas Copernicus - Polish astronomer; regarded the founder of modern astronomy. He studied mathematics and optics at Cracow, then canon law at Bologna, before becoming canon of Frombork.